Monday, August 04, 2014

Fundamental QA Formula

Quality is a big topic. Everyone talks about it but just few of people know detail. More people talk about Quality Control and Quality Assurance, fewer people consider Quality Management. I met the founder of Explora Testing and she is a QM professional. She shared some bullet points of QM which are valuable to our works.



Formula to use on Bug Find rate and Bug detection rate are following:

  • Bug find rate = Number of failed cases/Total test cases executed in the software or number of failed bugs/total test cases executed.
  • Defect detection Percentage = Number of bugs or failed cases discovered by IT team/ [Number of bugs discovered by IT Team+ Number of bugs or tickets being issued by users].


Notes: To measure the success of testing before and after that Functional Testing tester is hired can consider the following:

  1. First to have that tester improve test coverage and make sure test cases can cover at least acceptance (entry criteria), system integrity, data integrity, functionality, integrated parts, UAT, regression/code impact , performance (stability/reliability), error handling, security, negative test cases. So test cases coverage are strengthened.
  2. Then identify test cases and break them by phases, such as Smoke test, System testing, Regression Testing, UAT testing. 
  3. Execute testing , discover defects, tag defects in appropriate test phase. 
  4. Calculate DDP (Defect Detection percentage) by phase, comparing the % each phase and justify the effectiveness of the test team.

Example of Bug detection rate:
A software development organization discovered that during the first three months after releasing a software product the users reported about 20 problems. As the test team found 180 problems this means that the DDP equals to 180 / (180 + 20) = 90%. The test process was improved by introducing some formal test design techniques. After the next similar product customers reported only 10 problems during the initial three months. The test team found 190 problems, so the DDP was increased to 190 / (190 + 10) = 95%. The higher effectiveness of the test team had led to rise of the DDP of 5%. The process improvement was considered successful.

Thursday, June 19, 2014

Further notes to Core Management Skills

Here are further notes to Core Management Skills as the following.

7S Model: alignning for success

  • Strategy: how will this initiative support the direction and goals of the organization? of my workgroup?
  • Structure: how would people be most appropriately organized to support and achieve this initiative (e.g. teams, matrix structure, cross-functional project groups, organizational chart, etc)?
  • Systems: what information, processes, communication and measurements will need to be adjusted to support this initiative?
  • Shared values: how does this initiative fit with the shared values of the organization? of my workgroup?
  • Style: what leadership style supports (or hinders) this initiative? Ideally, what leadership style would fit best with this initiative?
  • Staff: what kind of people are needed to support this initiative? who should be on the project team?
  • Skills: what knowledge and skills will be needed within the organization to support and achieve this initiative? what knowledge and skills currently exist, and what will need to be built or contracted?

SWOT analysis

Internal factors:
  • How can we Use each Strength?
  • How can we Stop each Weakness?
External factors:
  • How can we Exploit each Opportunity?
  • How can we Defend against each Threat?

Need

  • Individual
  • Team
  • Project

Do the right things

  • Micromanagement - Steve Jobs
  • Remove demotivating elements
  • Consistent behavior
  • Awareness
  • Sincerity to pressure

5P Model

Purposes <--factors p="">==> Process <-- contexts="" p="">==> Performance <-- indicators="" p="">===> Purposes
^^
Personel Profile
People


Effort vs Action

1% for Investigation
10% for Inspection
100% for Correction

3 Areas

  • Purposes ==>
  • Critical Success Factors (CSF)
  • SMART goals
  • KPI
  • <== www.h: Who What When How

Feedback

  • Sales => Satisified customers => Positive words of mouth
  • Strengthen fundamental response
  • Weaken symptomatic response


Why good leaders make you feel safe?
- Simon Sinek

The main thing is to keep the main thing, the main thing.

Create conditions for people to perform.

The Hidden Agenda: A Proven Way to Win Business and Create a Following
- Kevin Allen

Find what they want and show them how to get it


Tuesday, June 17, 2014

How to be a supervisor

Essential Capabilities:
  •  Coach and Develop for results
  •  Drive Performance
  •  Inspire Loyalty and Trust
  •  Manage work
  •  Partner within and across teams
  •  Influence through personal tower
  •  Select Talent

"Before you are a leader, success is all about growing yourself. When you become a leader, success is all about growing others."
- Jack Welch

Key Principles of Communications:
  •  Maintain or Enhance Self-esteem
  •  Listen and Respond with Empathy
  •  Ask for help and Encourage involvement
  •  Share thoughts, feelings, and rationale
  •  Provide support without removing responsibility

Interaction Process:
  1. Open: state the purpose of discussion and identify importance
  2. Clarify: seek and share information about the situation/task. Identify issues and concern
  3. Develop: seek and discuss ideas. Explore needed resources/support
  4. Agree: specify actions, including contingency plans, if appropriate. Confirm how to measure progress
  5. Close: highlight important features of plan. Confirm confidence and commitment

Effective Feedback:
STAR:
  •  Situation, Task, Action, Result
  •  Situation, Task, Alternative Result, Action Result
golden rules:
  •  Specific
  •  Timely
  •  Balanced

Situational Leadership:
S1: Directing
Provide specific instructions (roles and goals) for staff and closely supervises tasks accomplishment. (I'll tell you how to do it)
  1. Explain the goals
  2. Provide clear direction and resources
  3. Facilitate the staff to follow the job procedures
  4. Monitor closely
S2: Coaching
Explain decisions, solicits suggestions from staff and continues to direct task accomplishment. (Let's talk, but I'll guide you to do it)
  1. Identify the problems and goals
  2. Obtain solutions and suggestions from the staff
  3. Listen to the opinions of the staff
  4. Provide solution
  5. Set the follow-up solution and time frame
S3: Supporting
Leader makes decisions together with his staff and support effort toward task accomplishment. (Let's talk, we'll figure out how to do it)
  1. Facilitate the staff to identify the problems and goals
  2. Ask the staff for solutions
  3. Agree the solutions
  4. Encourage the staff to report task accomplishment
S4: Delegating
Leader turns over decisions and responsibility for implementation to staff. (You know how to do it)
  1. Discuss with the staff on the problems and accomplishment
  2. Ask the staff their goals and plans
  3. Allow the staff to be responsible for the whole task
  4. Encourage the staff to report task accomplishment

Staff Development Levels:
D1: Enthusiastic beginner
Low competence, High commitment
D2: Disillusioned learner
Low to some competence, low commitment
D3: Capable but cautious performer
Moderate to high competence, variable commitment
D4: Self-reliant achiever
High competence, high commitment

GROW Model:
Get Ready:
  •  initiating and establishing the objectives of the coaching session.
  •  gain trust.
Reality:
  •  explore the performer's perspective & the reality/situation/issues.
  •  understanding the coachee's perspective.
  •  explore the reasons/issues by asking appropriate questions.
  •  adjusting the communication to the coachee's social style.
  •  addressing to the coachee's career anchor.
  •  questions: ask appropriate questions.
  •  listening: empathic/pay attention/eye contact/body gesture.
  •  give effective feedback & maintain/enhance self-esteem.
Option:
  •  summarize discussion and seek for options.
  •  summarize the reality.
  •  create shared objectives.
  •  identifying options.
  •  questions: ask appropriate question.
  •  listening: empathic/pay attention/eye contact/body gesture
  •  give effective feedback & maintain/enhance self-esteem.
Wrap Up:
  •  follow up meeting and action plan.
  •  set follow up meeting and action planning.

Positive Discipline:
  • Fact 
  • Recognize Importance of Staff
  • Expect
  1. Identify: Gap identify (desired vs actual)
  2. Analyze: Analyze severity (impact, consequence, past practice, what type of discussion)
  3. Discuss: Non accusory tone, state desired performance, state actual performance, listen for legtimate excuse, ask for agreement, review impact list, review consequence list, find solutions specifically to do, offer solutions if needed, what? can you think? will you do? end on a positive note.
  4. Document
  5. Follow up: follow up to monitor

SMART Task Delegation:
  • Specific: Task, Purpose/Context, Extent to Authority
  • Measureable: Measureable outcome, Skills and ability that needed
  • Achievable: Reason of the delegation
  • Relevant: Check points
  • Time Bound: Completion Date
  • People: Responsible to, Reporting
  • Resources: Additional resources/support
  • Obstacles: Foreseeable roadblocks
  • Actions: Actions agreed / Follow-up notes

Friday, April 04, 2014

Tough Mission

A manager who was assigned to establish a new heath and beauty store in a third world country shared his experience of the establishment. His mission was challenging and his experience was good as a reference of project management.

The mission was assigned in the beginning of September while the deadline was the beginning of December. He was just informed with a single statement of aiming at store establishment in the selected country and no more information else. Before his first visit to the country, he had prepared the following action items:
  • Action of the very first visit
  • Consultation
  • Project plan
  • Questionnaire for understanding

After his first visit, the following facts was known:
  • It was really a developing country
  • GDP around USD1000 pa
  • Flooding is common
  • Some product price level is similar to HK. e.g. shampoo sold in supermarket

The next action is to include:
  • Draw high level system diagram and architecture diagram. They must have been validated.
  • Identify key stakeholders (local business, HK PIC, his director)
  • Request his director to be responsbile for esculation to top management
  • Draft Plan in place
  • List risks & issues, critical tasks (such as hardware delivery lead time vs stick to existing hardware)
  • Status update to local business owners and headquarter director
  • Close communication by 1 on 1 resolution
  • Determine milestones
  • Inter-company transfer
  • Interim workaround
  • Group level reporting for supply chain KPI
  • Project risks
  • Issue logs
  • Action items
  • Integration test plan
  • Setup checklist
  • Gap analysis

Finally the mission was accomplished successfully. He shared the below lesson learnt:
  • Culture difference (e.g. local people can come to office very early but leave office on time)
  • Key stakeholders, Esculation
  • Get support from influencing people
  • Identify risks and issues

Wednesday, January 08, 2014

Core Management Skills

Not everyone is a manager, everyone manages from himself, tasks on job to everything in life. It's benefitial to understand some core management skills.

1. Leadership vs Management

The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing.

2. 5P Leadership Competencies

Purpose - Anticipates the future; creates and communicates an energizing vision to deliver high value to stakeholders.

Process - Designs and manages work-flows and practices that yield quality outputs and results; uses feedback, sound analysis and enterprising ideas to drive continuous improvement.

Performance - Defines and communicates business and people goals that meet stakeholder expectations, puts in place measures and monitors to achieve results.

People - Attracts, develops and retains talent; creates and supports a culture of openness, teamwork, loyalty, ownership and high performance.

Personal Profile - Acts with integrity, possesses high EQ, is an agile learner, displays a high level of interpersonal influence, leadership and confidence and promotes work-life commitments.

3. Time Management

Less Importance, Low Urgency - Don't do
Less Importance, High Urgency - Offload
High Importance, Low Urgency - Schedule
High Importance, High Urgency - Do it now

4. Critical Success Factor and Mind Mapping


5. Effective Meeting

PAL - Purpose, Agenda, and Logistics

6. System Thinking

When we think about solution, not just focus on the area we are working on, but also need to consider the corresponding impact to other parties.

7. Analysis Methodology

For internal factors, SWOT - Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat
For external factors, PEST - Political, Economic, Social and Technological